診斷

更新日期:2017/2/10

失智症的診斷

依據美國國家老化與阿茲海默症組織(National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association, NIAA) 於2011年所公布之內容21,失智症的診斷為具有下述認知或行為(神經心理上)的異常:
1. 工作或日常活動的能力受到干擾
2. 功能上或執行上表達能力較已往衰退
3. 無法由精神疾病或異常(delirium or major psychiatric disorder)所解釋
4. 認知功能缺損,其診斷可包含(1) history-taking from the patient and a knowledgeable informant and (2)an objective cognitive assessment, either a “bedside” mental status examination or neuropsychological testing.
5. 認知或行為缺損至少包還以下兩種層面
(1) 缺乏獲取與記憶新資訊的能力
(2) 缺乏推理與處理複雜事務與判斷事情的能力
(3) 視覺空間能力受損,其症狀包含無法辨認人臉或一般物體,或即使具有良好視力但無法找到物體,無法操作簡單的工具或orient clothing to the body
(4) 語言功能受損(包含說、讀與寫)
(5) 個性、行為舉止的改變)

NIA-AA輕度知能減退(mild congnitive impairment)的定義如下22
1. 認知上的改變
2. 具有客觀性的證據發現認知功能上的缺損,特別是在記憶方面
3. 在功能行為(functional abilities)上仍具有獨立性
4. 無精神錯亂(demented)

 

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